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Ballistics

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Ballistics are an important part of Escape from Tarkov. They play a big role in firefights and often determine the outcomes. Choosing the right weapon, ammo and gear is one of the most important parts in coming out on top of fighting.

All the data displayed below is the product of NoFoodAfterMidnight. This page is aimed at spreading the knowledge he uncovered, and making it easy to understand for new players.

Flight Ballistics

Bullet flight is simulated realistically in Escape from Tarkov. Bullets have speed, are affected by gravity and air friction and can penetrate or ricochet when hitting objects, and even fragment when doing so. The specific flight characteristics of a bullet is determined by the ammo type, and the chance of a bullet penetrating or ricocheting off of an object is determined by the material of the object and the type of bullet. Bullets also lose both damage and penetration power as they lose speed from air friction over long distances.

Terminal Ballistics

Escape from Tarkov also simulates damage to the body and body armor. Damage is dealt to a human body at the point of impact, damaging that limb or body part. Bullets are capable of penetrating walls or even limbs and hitting multiple body parts that way. Bullets can also fragment when penetrating a player's body, dealing 50% bonus damage to that limb, and more if those fragments continue through and hit other body parts. The damage dealt by a bullet is based only on the bullet itself, and not by the gun it was fired from. Armor protection is also simulated realistically, stopping bullets entirely instead of providing a damage reduction like in most games.

Armor and Penetration

Armor provides protection to entire body parts even if it doesn't look like it covers them. You can see what parts of the body are protected when you inspect the armor. When a bullet hits an armored body part, it either stops the bullet completely or the bullet penetrates the armor and does damage to the player. If a bullet is stopped by the armor, a % of the bullet's damage is dealt to that body part, known as "blunt damage", the % is based on the armor. The penetration chance is dependent on the armor's level and remaining durability %, and the ammo's penetration value. In most scenarios bullets will either have no chance to penetrate armor or will penetrate it almost every hit. This means choosing the highest penetration ammo is extremely important for dealing with heavily armored players. Whenever armor is hit it loses durability, which lowers its ability to protect you from bullets, eventually breaking and losing all protective ability. While the angle of impact has no effect on body armor, bullets can ricochet off of helmets depending on the angle and the helmet used.

Armor stacking

You can stack up two pieces of armor if you're wearing an armored chest rig. In which case the bullet tries to penetrate the rig first, then the armor if it penetrates. However, the bullet does not lose much of its penetrating ability going through a chest rig, so chest rigs are a good and more cost effective way to protect yourself against scavs and lightly geared players who use low penetration rounds such as 12x70 Buckshot or 9x18mm Makarov, which doesn't damage your expensive pieces of armor, but aren't good against high penetration ammo.

You can read an even more in-depth summary of all armor-related mechanics on NoFoodAfterMidnight's blog here.

Armor Penetration Tables

How To Read

Effectiveness level Average amount of bullets stopped Explanation
0 Pointless 20+ Can't penetrate in any reasonable amount of hits
1 It's possible, but... 13 to 20 Typically doesn't penetrate at all for a large number of hits, or starts with a very low chance and barely increases
2 Magdump only 9 to 13 Has a very low or no penetration chance intially and very slowly gains chance
3 Slightly effective 5 to 9 Has a low penetration chance intially and slowly gains chance, or quickly damages armor until it penetrates
4 Effective 3 to 5 Starts with a low-medium penetration chance but quickly increases
5 Very effective 1 to 3 Penetrates a large percent of the time intially, often quickly going to >90%
6 Basically ignores <1 Initially penetrates >80% of the time

*There is a bug where bullets under a certain threshold of penetration power can not fragment at all, and the actual fragmentation chance is lower than bullets' value implies due to implementation. This threshold is somewhere between 23 and 32 penetration power, and bullets that do not have the required penetration power can not fragment, leaving a lot of HP rounds with high fragmentation chance unable to fragment at all.

**Assuming all 8 pellets hitting the target on every shot. Because each pellet causes a minimum of 1 durability loss to armor, it becomes effective at breaking down armor and eventually penetrating.

Armor Effectiveness against Class
Caliber Name Damage Penetration Power Armor Damage Fragmentation Chance* 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
12x70mm 12x70 Buckshot** 8x32 3 8x26 0% 4 3 3 3 3 3
12x70 RIP 235 0 11 100% 0 0 0 0 0 0
12x70 Slug 165 21 65 100% 6 6 4 3 1 0
20x70mm 20x70 Buckshot** 8x20 3 8x23 0% 4 3 3 3 3 3
9x18mm Makarov 9x18 mm PM SP8 gzh 67 3 40 2% 1 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PPe gzh 58 5 23 35% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PRS gs 56 5 23 30% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PSO gzh 54 5 23 35% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PSV 62 5 29 2% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM 9 P gzh 53 5 24 25% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PS gs PPO 53 6 24 25% 4 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PPT gzh 53 6 24 17% 4 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM SP7 gzh 70 6 38 2% 4 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 PM mm RG028 gzh 51 7 26 0% 5 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM Pst gzh 49 7 26 20% 5 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM 9 BZT gzh 44 8 26 17% 5 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PBM 39 8 26 16% 5 0 0 0 0 0
9x18 mm PM PMM 59 8 26 17% 5 0 0 0 0 0
9x19mm Parabellum 9x19 mm RIP 102 2 11 100% 1 0 0 0 0 0
9x19 mm Luger CCI 70 10 38 25% 5 1 0 0 0 0
9x19 mm PSO gzh 63 13 32 25% 6 2 0 0 0 0
9x19 mm Green Tracer 58 16 33 15% 6 3 1 0 0 0
9x19 mm Pst gzh 56 18 33 15% 6 5 1 0 0 0
9x19 mm AP 6.3 52 25 48 5% 6 6 4 2 0 0
7.62x25mm Tokarev 7.62x25mm TT LRNPC 66 5 27 35% 2 0 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT LRN 64 6 28 35% 3 0 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT FMJ43 60 8 29 25% 4 0 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT AKBS 58 9 32 25% 5 1 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT P gl 58 10 32 25% 6 1 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT PT gzh 60 12 34 17% 6 1 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT Pst gzh 50 19 36 20% 6 5 1 0 0 0
9x21mm Gyurza 9x21 mm SP12 72 10 63 35% 5 2 0 0 0 0
9x21 mm SP11 66 12 44 30% 6 2 0 0 0 0
9x21 mm SP10 45 28 46 20% 6 6 5 3 1 0
9x21 mm SP13 58 30 47 20% 6 6 6 3 1 0
.366 TKM .366 TKM Geksa 77 14 38 45% 6 4 1 0 0 0
.366 TKM FMJ 71 20 36 25% 6 6 2 0 0 0
.366 TKM EKO 65 26 38 20% 6 6 4 2 0 0
9x39mm 9x39 mm SP-5 68 30 52 20% 6 6 6 4 2 1
9x39 mm SP-6 58 38 60 10% 6 6 6 5 4 2
9x39 mm 7N9 SPP 67 38 56 20% 6 6 6 5 4 2
9x39 mm 7N12 BP 60 44 68 10% 6 6 6 6 5 4
5.45x39mm 5.45x39 mm SP 68 11 34 45% 6 1 0 0 0 0
5.45x39 mm HP 73 11 32 35% 6 1 0 0 0 0
5.45x39 mm US 65 15 34 10% 6 4 0 0 0 0
5.45x39 mm PRS 60 14 34 30% 6 3 0 0 0 0
5.45x39 mm FMJ 54 18 44 25% 6 5 1 0 0 0
5.45x39 mm T 57 20 38 16% 6 6 1 0 0 0
5.45x39 mm PS 50 23 47 40% 6 6 3 2 1 0
5.45x39 mm PP 46 27 50 17% 6 6 5 3 1 0
5.45x39 mm BP 42 32 38 16% 6 6 6 4 2 0
5.45x39 mm BT 44 33 52 16% 6 6 6 5 3 1
5.45x39 mm BS 40 50 57 17% 6 6 6 6 6 5
5.45x39 mm 7N39 "Igolnik" 37 62 60 2% 6 6 6 6 6 6
5.56x45mm NATO 5.56x45 mm Warmage 83 3 26 90% 2 0 0 0 0 0
5.56x45 mm 55 HP 72 9 38 70% 5 1 0 0 0 0
5.56x45 mm Mk 255 Mod 0 60 17 32 3% 6 4 1 0 0 0
5.56x45 mm 55 FMJ 52 24 45 50% 6 6 3 2 1 0
5.56x45 mm M855 50 26 40 40% 6 6 4 2 1 0
5.56x45 mm M856 55 23 38 33% 6 6 3 2 1 0
5.56x45 mm M855A1 57 31 42 34% 6 6 6 4 2 1
5.56x45 mm M856A1 56 34 45 33% 6 6 6 5 3 1
5.56x45 mm M995 42 53 57 32% 6 6 6 6 6 5
7.62x39mm 7.62x39 mm HP 76 15 45 26% 6 4 1 1 0 0
7.62x39 mm US 68 19 41 8% 6 5 1 1 0 0
7.62x39 mm T45M 58 26 48 12% 6 6 5 2 1 0
7.62x39 mm PS 57 33 50 25% 6 6 6 5 3 2
7.62x39 mm BP 50 45 65 12% 6 6 6 6 5 4
7.62x51mm NATO 7.62x51 mm M80 80 45 66 17% 6 6 6 6 5 4
7.62x51 mm M62 79 54 75 14% 6 6 6 6 6 5
7.62x51 mm M61 70 68 83 13% 6 6 6 6 6 6
7.62x54mmR 7.62x54R LPS Gzh 81 42 78 18% 6 6 6 6 4 4
7.62x54R 7N1 Sniper cartridge 86 45 84 8% 6 6 6 6 5 4
7.62x54R SNB 75 62 87 8% 6 6 6 6 6 6
4.6x30mm HK 4.6x30mm Action SX 65 13 39 50% 6 2 1 0 0 0
4.6x30mm FMJ SX 43 30 41 20% 6 6 6 3 1 1
4.6x30mm Subsonic SX 41 34 46 20% 6 6 6 4 3 1
4.6x30mm AP SX 35 46 46 10% 6 6 6 6 5 4